Some Common Terms Used In Metallurgy


Some common terms used in Metallurgy

In the earth’s crust, compounds occur in a free state or native state. Extraction of metals is important in pure form for our daily purposes.

Metallurgy
The process of extraction of metal in a pure state from its ore is called metallurgy.

Pyrometallurgy 
A process in which ore is reduced to the metal at high temperature using a suitable reducing agent like carbon, hydrogen, aluminium is called pyrometallurgy.

Hydrometallurgy 
A process of extracting metal from aqueous solutions of their salts using a suitable reducing agent

Electrometallurgy 
A process of extracting metal by electrolytic reduction of a molten metal compound. The process is used to extract highly electropositive metals such as Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and aluminum. because these metals cannot be reduced by a conventional reducing agent such as carbon monoxide.

Leaching 
It is a process of extracting a soluble material from an insoluble solid by dissolving out in a suitable solvent and it is often used if Ore is soluble in a suitable solvent.

Roasting
In this process, ore is heated to high temperature below their melting point in the presence of an excess of air. In this process moisture escapes and the impurities arsenic sulphur, phosphorus are oxidized to their volatile oxides. The ore becomes porous. It is generally carried out in a reverberatory furnace.

Calcination
It is a process in which ore is heated to a high temperature below its melting point in absence of air or an unlimited supply of air. In this process, organic matter, moisture, volatile impurities are removed from the ore which makes the over porous. It is also carried out in the reverberatory furnace like roasting. But the main difference between calcination and roasting is absence of air and presence of air.

Smelting
It is a process of extracting impure molten metal from its ore at a high temperature using suitable flux and a reducing agent.

Flux
A flux is a chemical substance added to the concentrated over during process of smelting to remove the gangue to form easily fusible slag.

Slag
Slag is a waste product formed by a combination of flux and gangue during extraction of metal by process of smelting.

Mineral
Mineral naturally occurring substance obtained by mining which contains the metal in free state  combined state is called mineral.

Ore

A mineral containing a high percentage of the metal from which metal can be profitably extracted is called an Ore.

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